The Apache Commons Math project is a library of lightweight, self-contained mathematics and statistics components addressing the most common practical problems not immediately available in the Java programming language or commons-lang.
The JTS Topology Suite is an API for modelling and manipulating 2-dimensional linear geometry. It provides numerous geometric predicates and functions. JTS conforms to the Simple Features Specification for SQL published by the Open GIS Consortium.
JAMA is a basic linear algebra package for Java. It provides user-level classes for constructing and manipulating real, dense matrices. It is meant to provide sufficient functionality for routine problems, packaged in a way that is natural and understandable to non-experts.